Published 11 Mar 2009 on ZDnet, for fair use only
Author: Tom Espiner ZDNet.co.uk
Keywords also in Wikipedia: Open Society, Closed Society, Advertising, Surveillance, Uberveillance
Keywords on ZDnet: Advertising, Programme, Packet, Targeted
Speaking at a House of Lords event to mark the 20th anniversary of the invention of the World Wide Web, Berners-Lee said that deep packet inspection (DPI) was the electronic equivalent of opening people’s mail.
“This is very important to me, as what is at stake is the integrity of the internet as a communications medium,” Berners-Lee said on Wednesday. “Clearly we must not interfere with the internet, and we must not snoop on the internet. If we snoop on clicks and data, we can find out a lot more information about people than if we listen to their conversations.”
DPI involves examining both the data and the header of an information packet as it passes a ‘black box’ on a network, in order to reveal the content of the communication. Targeted advertising services, such as Phorm in the UK, use DPI to monitor anonymised user behaviour and to target adverts at those users. In addition, UK government initiatives such as the Intercept Modernisation Programme have proposed using DPI to perform mass surveillance of the web comunications of the entire UK population.
Speaking to ZDNet UK at the event, Berners-Lee declined to comment about any particular company or government initiative, but said that internet service providers (ISPs) should not perform DPI.
“If [third parties] are using the data for political ends or commercial interest, there we have to draw the line,” Berners-Lee said. “There’s a gap between running a successful internet service and looking inside data packets.”
Berners-Lee expressed concern that the UK government had taken no action over DPI, in contrast to the US government’s response to the use of DPI by targeted advertising company NebuAd. Last autumn, the US Congress decided to review privacy concerns around the start-up, after which the company’s chief executive, Bob Dykes, stepped down.
“I’m embarrassed, as a UK citizen and as a US resident, that the US has drawn a line firmly against DPI and this country hasn’t,” Berners-Lee said.
Nicholas Bohm, the general counsel for the Foundation for Information Policy Research (FIPR), said the UK government may not have taken any action over DPI as it was in the process of developing the Intercept Modernisation Programme itself. “The government’s desire to know all about us may be hampering its doing anything about others who are snooping,” he said.
Kent Ertugral, the chief executive of Phorm, said his company had ensured that privacy principles are adhered to by anonymising the data it collects, while at the same time giving websites the ability to fine-hone their advertising. “We have created something that reconciles the need for privacy, but also for commerce,” said Ertugral.
Prominent cross-bench peer Lord Erroll said DPI to target adverts did not concern him as much as the UK government’s plans.
“The Intercept Modernisation Programme worries me hugely more than [targeted advertising],” said Erroll. “The impact of an incorrect interpretation of communications by government means anyone could end up in jail, or worse. It’s hugely dangerous.”
Deep packet inspection: What you should know
Published on ZDnet
Author: Michael Kassner, 31 Jul 2008
Anyone who uses the internet needs to be aware of deep packet inspection, its uses and potential misuses.
You may recognise deep packet inspection (DPI) as something internet service providers (ISPs) use to conform to the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (Calea), the US government-ordered internet wire-tapping directive. If that’s not enough, DPI, albeit behind the scenes, allows ISPs to block, shape, and prioritise traffic, which is now fuelling the net-neutrality-versus-traffic-priority debate. So, what is DPI and how does it work?
Deep packet inspection
DPI is next-generation technology that’s capable of inspecting every byte of every packet that passes through the DPI device. That means packet headers, types of applications and actual packet content.
Up until now, this wasn’t possible with intrusion-detection or intrusion-prevention systems (IDS/IPS) or stateful firewalls. The difference is that DPI has the ability to inspect traffic at layers 2 through to 7 – hence the ‘deep’ in DPI.
A simple analogy would be that of snail mail. IDS/IPS firewalls would be the mail sorters who just read the letter’s address, knowing nothing about the letter’s content. Inspecting internet traffic from layers 2 through to 7 would correspond to the person who actually reads the letter and understands the contents.
To recap, DPI allows the people controlling the device to know everything, including the payload of each packet in the data stream. For example, if an unencrypted email is scanned, the actual body of the email can be reassembled and read.
Nate Anderson wrote an excellent Ars Technica article, Deep packet inspection meets net neutrality, Calea, in which the following quote appears:
“Deep packet inspection refers to the fact that these boxes don’t simply look at the header information as packets pass through them. Rather, they move beyond the IP and TCP header information to look at the payload of the packet. The goal is to identify the applications being used on the network, but some of these devices can go much further; those from a company like Narus, for instance, can look inside all traffic from a specific IP address, pick out the HTTP traffic, then drill even further down to capture only traffic headed to and from Gmail, and can even reassemble emails as they are typed out by the user.”
Anderson also explained what happens at layer 7:
“Layer 7 is the application layer, the actual messages sent across the internet by programs like Firefox or Skype or Azureus. By stripping off the headers, deep-packet-inspection devices can use the resulting payload to identify the program or service being used. Procera, for instance, claims to detect more than 300 application protocol signatures, including BitTorrent, HTTP, FTP, SMTP and SSH. Ellacoya reps tell Ars that their boxes can look deeper than the protocol, identifying particular HTTP traffic generated by YouTube and Flickr, for instance. Of course, the identification of these protocols can be used to generate traffic-shaping rules or restrictions.”
What makes DPI all the more impressive is that the packet analysis happens in real-time, with data stream throughput approaching 20-30Gbps. With no loss of throughput, ISPs are able to insert these devices directly in their data streams, forcing all traffic to pass through the devices. Procera, Narus, and Ellacoya are front-runners in the development of this technology, having placed equipment throughout the world.
DPI’s potential uses
DPI technology is unique in that, as of now, it’s the only way to accomplish certain US governmental security directives. DPI also has the potential to do a great deal of good. For example, distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks are virtually impossible to thwart. Conceivably, if DPI were in place and configured correctly, it would detect the DDoS packets and filter them out. Some more potential uses are listed below:
- Network security: DPI’s ability to inspect data streams at such a granular level may prevent viruses and spyware from either gaining entrance to a network or leaving it
- Network access: DPI creates conditions where network-access rules are easy to enforce due to the deep inspection of packets
- Calea compliance: DPI technology augments traffic-access-points technology used initially for governmental surveillance equipment
- Enforcement of service-level agreements: ISPs can use DPI to ensure that their acceptable-use policy is enforced. For example, DPI can locate illegal content or abnormal bandwidth usage
- Quality of service: P2P traffic gives ISPs a great deal of trouble. DPI would allow the ISP to instigate traffic control and bandwidth allocation
- Tailored service: DPI allows ISPs to create different services plans, which means users would pay for a certain amount of bandwidth and traffic priority. This point is controversial and affects net neutrality
- DRM enforcement: DPI has the ability to filter traffic to remove copyrighted material. There’s immense pressure from the music and film industries to make ISPs responsible for curtailing illegal distribution of copyrighted material
The above applications have the potential to give users a better internet experience. Yet it wouldn’t take much mission creep to create major privacy concerns. It would be remiss if these were not pointed out so that everyone can understand the ramifications.
Possible misuses of DPI
DPI is another innovative technology that has ISPs arguing with privacy advocates. ISPs and DPI developers are adamant that the technology is benign and will create a better internet experience. However, privacy groups have two major concerns: that there would be little or no oversight, and the potential for losing still more individual privacy. Many experts find the following uses of DPI to be especially troubling:
- Traffic shaping: Traffic shaping is where certain traffic or entities get priority and a predetermined amount of bandwidth. With the increasing number of bandwidth-hungry applications, ISPs are having to make decisions on whether to increase available bandwidth with infrastructure build-out or increase control of the existing bandwidth. Installing a DPI system is usually the choice, as it’s cheaper and has a more predictable return on investment. Albeit cheaper, it’s riskier, and that may be why the net-neutrality debate is going on at the moment
- Behavioural targeting: Behavioural targeting uses DPI technology for the sole purpose of harvesting user information anonymously – supposedly – and selling it to interested parties who use the information to create ads that are targeted to the individual
This is a very complex subject, with the potential to change everyone’s view of the internet. An optimist would say that DPI will help enhance the experience, even producing ads that are relevant to each individual user. However, a pessimist may say it’s Big-Brother technology that only benefits ISPs. No-one is sure how the internet will look when the dust settles around the issue of DPI, but it should be interesting.
Michael Kassner is a network field engineer and independent wireless consultant.
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